A brief history of Oratorio
According to Willi Apel, the oratorio history starts in the mid sixteenth century .These contained readings from religious text, a sermon and a sing of laude. A kind of laude was the dialogue laude. These were spiritual poems written in three or four parts and performed with different kinds of singers who’d had dressed up like the characters they represended. From these presentations, who were called rappresentatione, storia, esempio, misterio oratorio was developed.It had been encouraged by the counter reformation.
Though There have been records of some functions that have the qualities of an oratorio since middle ages, the work Raptresentatione di Anima et di Corpo of Emilio de Cavalieri is regarded as the very first oratorio.
And on the other hand, there are many to contemplate the work of Claudio Monteverdi, Il Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, as the primary secular oratorio. Some researchers have contested that the two works belong to the genre of the oratorio. Throughout 1650 some changes were observed.
Religious Oratorio tended to be secular. There were performances beyond the church, in the backyards and theaters. But whether secular or religious, the story of the oratorio was momentous. Topics like Creation, the life of Christ, the classical enthusiast or prophet were included. During that time most composers of oratorio were popular composers of opera.
They started to print libretto of their work, as it was with the operatic librettos. Soon they highlighted the arias plus they decreased the choir part. Alongside female entertainers appeared whilst the guy narrator was substituted by recitative. From the mid-seventeenth century 2 kinds oratorio had been established.
The Oratorio history: Oratorio Volgare
This kind had a duration of 30-60 minutes. It had been done in 2 parts that were separated by a sermon. The music was comparable to that of their modern works of opera and chamber cantata.
The Oratorio history: Oratorio latino
The most crucial representative of the oratorio latino was Giacomo Carissimi. His work Jephte considered the first masterpiece of the genre. A German composer, Heinrich Schü, tz was the very First oratorio composer with the following functions: Historia der Auferstehung and Christmas Oratorio. The latter is regarded as of an excellent artistic value and it could be compared with Bach’s Christmas Oratorio, written .
The Oratory of the late Baroque at 1800. The most famous oratorio composer of Great Britain throughout the period was the German born George Frideric Handel, his most famous work, the Messiah, is still very popular. Handel also composed oratorios based on topics from Greek -Ancient Rome mythology and Bible.
It’s also believed that he composed the very first oratorio in English. We’re speaking about Esther. Later, J. Haydn also composed oratorios.
19th century and After
Oratorios had been written during 19th century. Throughout twentieth century composers like Stravinsky, Arthur Honegger, Krzysztof Penderecki, and pop composers such Paul Mc Cartney composed Oratorios.